Krashen’s “Principles & Practice in SLA”

  1. Intro
    • A. 3 approaches to method
      • a. SLA theory
      • b. applied linguistics research
      • c. ideas & intuitions from experience
    • B. interactions among approaches to practice
    • C. what 3 approaches have to say about method
    • D. goals: re-intro teachers to theory & to gain confidence
  2. SLA
    • A. 5 hypotheses
      • a. A-L distinction i.e. hypo:
        • adults also A
        • subconscious v.s. conscious
        • children v.s. adults
        • conclusion: A is more important than L
      • b. hypo natural order
        • acquisition order is similar to difficulty order
        • SLA order is different from FLA order, yet there are similarities
        • trasitional forms exist, this uniformity reflects the natural LA process
      • c. hypo monitor
        • A initiates utterances, is responsible for fluency
        • L has only Monitor/Editor function, under necessary yet insufficient conditions:
          • i) time
          • ii) focus on form
          • iii) know the rule
        • individual variation:
          • i) over-users
          • ii) under-users
          • iii) optimal user — able to fill part, but not all of the gap
      • *d. hypo input — how we acquire? we acquire by “going for meaning” first, and as a result, we acquire structure
        • 1) statement
          • a) relates to A, not L
          • b) acqure by understanding lang that contains structure beyond current competence level(i.e. i+1), with help of world knowledge/extra-linguistic info
          • c) when communication is successful/input is understood, and there is enough, i+1 will be provided automatically
          • d) fluency emerges over time, cannot be taught directly, can only be developed with comprehensible input
        • 2) evidence
          • a) FLA in children: caretaken-speech
            • i) to aid comprehension, understands first
            • ii) roughly- not finely-tuned, not a grammatically based syllabus
            • iii) here-and-now principle
          • b) SLA: simple codes, differs from caretaken in:
            • i) made for the purpose of lang teaching v.s. communication
            • ii) both are roughly-tuned
            • iii) not always here-and-now, but helpful when find other way to make input comprehensible
            • conclusion: natural, communicative, roughly-tuned, comprehensible input
          • c) SLA: silent period & L1 influence
          • d) advantages & disadvantages of L2 use
          • e) applied linguistic research
      • e. hypo affective filter
        • 1) 3 categories:
          • a) +motivation
          • b) +self-confidence
          • c) -anxiety
        • 2) not only include supplying comprehensible input, but also creating a situation that encourages a low filter
    • B. causative variable
      • a. overview: comprehensible input + filter level
      • b. lang teaching(instruction)
        • 1) it helps: for beginners & foreign lang students who have no chance to get input outside the class
        • 2) not helps: when rich sources of input are available
      • c. exposure var
      • d. age
        • 1) adults proceeds through SLA early stages faster
        • 2) older children acquire faster than younger ones
        • 3) natural exposure to SL, higher proficiency during childhood than as adults
      • e. acculturation(文化适应)
  3. Providing input4A
    • A. potential
    • B. limitations
    • C. role of output
      • a. coversation & LA
      • b. output & L
    • D. characteristics of optimal input4A
      • a. comprehensible
        • 1) how to aid comprehension
          • i) slower rate & clearer articulation, to allow more processing time & identify word boundaries more easily
          • ii) more use of hight frequency vocabulary, less slang, fewer idioms
          • iii) shorter sentences, syntactic simplification
        • 2) necessary but not sufficient
          • i) simply no i+1
          • ii) understanding w.o. utilizing syntax
          • iii) affective filter may be up
      • b. interesting &| relevant
        • info/material in need is the info/material indeed interesting/relevant
      • c. not grammatically sequenced
        • no need to deliberately include i+1, since it occurs naturally
        • there will be i+1, as long as there is enough input
      • d. must be in sufficient quantity
        • 1) natural communicative input could supply i+1, if it is:
          • i) not artificially constrained
          • ii) supplied in sufficient quantity
        • 2) how much input?
          • i) initial readiness to speak: TPR ~10h, informal LA 6m ‘silent period’
          • ii) higher level proficiency: 1950h classtime
        • 3) extensive v.s. intensive input
          • gain more from participating in conversations, many conversations, than from focused listening comprehension exercises
    • E. other features encouraging A
      • a. should not be put on defensive
        • 1) focus on the message instead of the form, ideally, ‘forget’ message is actually encoded in SL
        • 2) not to force production
        • 3) eliminate error correction entirely in communicative-type activities
      • b. provide tools to help obtain
    • F. teaching coversational competence
  4. Role of grammar & putting grammar in its place
    • A. L does not become A
    • B. place of grammar
    • C. L effects: accuracy
    • D. other effects
    • E. presentation of rules
    • F. notes on error correction
    • G. grammar as subject-matter
  5. Approaches to lang teaching
    • A. present-day teaching method
      • a. grammar & translation
      • b. audio-lingualism
      • c. cognitive-code
      • d. direct method
      • e. natural approach
      • f. total physical response(TPR)
      • g. suggestopedia
    • B. applied linguisitics research
    • C. alternative to methods
    • D. comments on achievement testing
    • E. some gaps in materials
    • F. some problems

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